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Sunflowers are among the easiest flowers to grow at home from seeds.
Sunflower seeds can be planted outdoors in garden soil or containers after the last spring frost. Sunflowers prefer well-drained soil and a full sun planting location but tolerate less-than-perfect conditions.
Plant each seed about ½”-1″ deep and cover the seeds lightly with garden soil. Sunflower seeds are generally spaced about 12″ – 24″ apart. Water the garden area after planting the seeds.
Read on to learn all about how to plant sunflower seeds!
Sunflower seeds are generally planted in the spring after the last frost. Most gardeners use their local average last frost date as a guideline and then watch the weather forecast each spring for nighttime temperatures that remain above freezing. That said, sunflower seedlings are relatively tough and can survive light frosts, especially if covered overnight.
Sunflower seeds are most commonly planted from March to May. While local climates differ, most gardeners in southern areas with mild winters generally plant sunflower seeds in March-April. Gardeners in cooler climates with freezing winters generally plant sunflower seeds in April-May. Sunflower seeds can also be planted every 2-3 weeks throughout spring and early summer for a longer flowering period in the fall. Many sunflower varieties take only 2-3 months to grow from seed to flower, meaning you can plant sunflower seeds as late as July in many climates.
While sunflowers grow best when the seeds are planted outdoors in their intended growing location, seedlings can also be planted indoors in early spring. This usually results in the first sunflowers blooming a few weeks before direct-sown sunflowers bloom. Indoor-grown sunflower seedlings are usually planted from seed 2-4 weeks before the average local last frost date. The seedlings can then be transplanted outdoors once danger of frost has passed.
Sunflowers grow best in full sun planting locations that get at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight each day. While they will grow in shadier spots, the plants will likely be spindly and the flowers quite small. They should also be planted in a spot where they can be watered easily as young plants. In windy climates, they may need to be staked (especially taller varieties). While they grow best in well-drained sandy loam soil, they are tolerant of heavy clay soil.
Sunflowers can also be planted nearby or in your vegetable garden as a beneficial companion plant. Sunflowers are one of the most reliable companion plants for crops that depend on insect pollination as these bright blooms attract all sorts of pollinators and beneficial insects.
Sunflower seeds are easy to plant outside in the garden. Here are the basic steps for planting sunflower seeds:
Smaller varieties of sunflowers can be grown in pots or larger planters. Most of the instructions are the same as for planting seeds directly in the outdoor garden soil, as described above. The seeds should be planted a ½” deep in the potting soil in the pot. And as with in-ground gardens, be sure to water the soil thoroughly after planting and check that water can drain out of the bottom of the pot.
When growing sunflowers in pots, be sure to use a pot that drains out excess water easily with an adequate drainage hole. You’ll also want to fill the planter with high-quality organic potting mix and position it in a sunny location on the patio. Lastly, sunflowers grown in pots generally need to be watered much more frequently than sunflowers grown in the ground as the planters tend to dry out quickly.
While you could likely grow any kind of sunflower in a container as long as the container was large enough (like a whiskey barrel garden), there are some dwarf sunflower varieties that are perfect for growing in a patio planter or flower pot, including:
There are three common reasons for planting sunflower seeds indoors:
For dwarf sunflowers grown in flower pots, start by choosing a short variety (such as the dwarf varieties listed in the previous section). Sunflower microgreens are most commonly planted from Black Oil Sunflower seeds. Seedling plants can be planted from whichever varieties you’d like to plant outdoors after the last frost.
Sunflowers grown indoors grow best when planted in high-quality organic potting mix. The seeds should be kept moist until germination and watered regularly afterwards. Once the seeds have sprouted, place the tiny seedlings under a bright plant light to allow for ample photosynthesis. Air circulation is also helpful for the young seedlings.
There are endless varieties of sunflower available for planting. There are giant sunflowers that tower over the garden, sunflowers that branch and grow multiple flowers, specialty florist ornamental sunflowers, and tiny little dwarf sunflower varieties. Here are 5 of the best sunflower varieties to consider when you’re shopping for sunflower seeds.
The Mammoth Sunflower is the classic giant sunflower variety. This heirloom was developed in Eastern Europe and is known for its large sunflower heads and high-quality sunflower seeds. Here are some seed companies that offer Mammoth Sunflower seeds for planting:
The Lemon Queen Sunflower is the most popular sunflower for attracting beneficial pollinators to your garden. These lemon-yellow flowers are well-known favorites of bees and other beneficial insects due to their high-quality nectar. Here are some seed companies that offer Lemon Queen sunflower seeds:
The Black Oil Sunflower is the traditional variety planted to attract birds to your yard due to the oil-rich seeds they produce. These seeds are generally packaged in large sunflower seed bags for filling bird feeders and can generally be purchased at garden centers and big-box stores. While you can certainly plant the seeds that are sold as bird food, most gardeners grow more uniform plants from seeds selected specifically for planting:
The Teddy Bear Sunflower is a short heirloom sunflower with masses of very thin petals giving it a fluffy appearance. These puffball-type sunflowers grow to reach only 3′ high, making them a favorite in children’s gardens. Here are some companies that offer Teddy Bear Sunflower seeds for sale:
The ProCut Sunflower Brand is a line of specialty sunflower varieties grown mainly in cutting gardens to make floral bouquets. ProCut Sunflowers are available in a wide range of different shades, including:
Sunflowers are relatively easy to care for once the seeds have sprouted. The plants should be watered regularly while they are young, but become more drought tolerant once the plants reach several feet tall. That said, irrigating the plants generally leads to a more reliable crop of sunflowers. As with water, these plants also need ample sunlight daily to truly thrive. If your soil is nutrient-poor, you may also wish to apply a slow-release organic fertilizer at the frequency recommended on the product you choose.
Sunflower season generally occurs in August to September. These two months are generally the peak of sunflower harvest season, making this time popular for sunflower festivals and cheerful bouquets at the farmers market. Different varieties of sunflowers bloom at different periods through late summer to early fall. Seedlings planted early in the spring may bloom in July in mild climates. Some farmers sow seeds every 2 weeks during spring and sometimes into early summer, making fresh sunflowers available into October in mild locations.
Sunflowers take between 60-110 days to grow depending on the variety of sunflower and local growing conditions. Dwarf Teddy Bear Sunflowers take only about 60 days to bloom in good conditions after the seeds are planted, while tiny Suntastic Sunflowers take only 65 days to start blooming. Larger 6′-tall florist sunflowers take more like 100 days to mature after being planted. Giant sunflowers like Mammoth and Titan take 110+ days to reach maturity.
The best time to plant sunflower seeds is when the soil temperature is about 75°F. These seeds prefer warm soil, so it is generally best to wait until the soil temperature has warmed to at least 60°F.
Usually, sunflower seeds can be planted anytime after the last frost in spring. You can even plant them up to four weeks before the last frost, but be prepared to replant the seeds if there is frost damage.
How do I plant sunflower seeds? A: To plant sunflower seeds, create a small hole in the soil about 1/2 inch deep. Place one seed in the divot and cover it with soil. If you have extra seeds, you can put 2-3 in one hole and then trim off the two weaker seedlings.
Water the soil gently to help settle it. Sunflower seeds of most varieties should be planted about 18-24 inches apart, as they will grow to be quite large.
Water sunflower seedlings regularly to moisten the soil on a regular basis, but don’t keep it waterlogged. While some seeds need soil to be kept consistently moist, larger seeds like sunflowers are less likely to experience fungal dampening off if the soil dries out a tad between wterings.
Once the plants are established, they are quite drought-tolerant and will only need watering during prolonged periods of dry weather.
Yes, sunflowers can be grown in pots or containers as long as they are large enough to accommodate the plant’s root system. Usually, this means choosing a dwarf variety to grow (or a very large pot!).
Choose a container with drainage holes and use a well-draining potting mix. Water the plants regularly and fertilize them every two weeks with a balanced liquid fertilizer.
Sunflowers are so easy and fun to grow! It’s worth thinking a bit more about which varieties to choose, plus whether you’d like any specialty types for your yard that you can’t buy at the farmers market.