It’s harvest time! Have you recently planted your own apple tree and are wondering how long does it take for an apple tree to grow?
An apple tree from the nursery will generally start producing a small crop of apples about 3 years after planting. Apple varieties grafted onto some dwarf rootstocks may bear several fruit in as little as two years after purchase. Apple trees with standard-height rootstocks may take longer to grow apples – generally from 3 to 5 years. An apple tree grown from a seed will take five to twelve years to produce fruit!
Here’s all about how long you’ll be waiting to harvest your own yummy apples!
Harvesting Apples from Apple Trees
Fresh organic apples are abundant in the fall. Each apple tree produces fruit only once per year. Harvest time in North America is between August and October. Apples grown in the Southern hemisphere tend to ripen during February-March. Because few apples can be stored for 12 months, apples are generally shipped around the world to ensure year-round availability at the grocery store.
Apple trees are truly gorgeous throughout the year. From the display of blossoms in the spring to the harvest of fruit in the fall, the apple tree is truly a showstopper in the yard. And apple trees fruit best when they have some other apple trees of a different type nearby! Here are some lovely different types of apples to grow.
Apples can be harvested off the branch by gently turning each apple upside down so that the bottom is facing up to the sky. There is no need to twist or pull on the apple. Ripe apples will come off the tree gently when inverted.
“Grafting is common because it can take five to 12 years until a tree grown from seed is ready to produce fruit – and even then, the chances of the “seedling” tree producing tasty fruit is minimal, due to genetic diversity.”Growing Urban Orchards: How to Care for Fruit Trees in the City and Beyond, by Susan Poizner
Planting Your Own Apple Trees
Have you noticed apple trees in neighbors yards, orchards, or at local nurseries? If so, you can consider planting your own mini-orchard. Growing your own organic apples is a bit of an exercise in patience, but the effort is rewarded sweetly each fall.
If you do decide to plant your own apple trees, you’re in luck! Fall is the perfect time to plant new trees. Not only are trees generally reasonably-priced in the fall, they also are headed into winter dormancy. After they’ve produced fruit all summer, fruit trees get a break in the fall and winter seasons.
Planting trees in the fall will ensure they don’t have to endure the stresses of the hot sun and parched soil, nor the burden of producing fruit. Newly-planted trees can cozy up in their new homes for the winter. Your new trees will be right at home by the time they blossom in the spring.
That said, its also completely possible to plant apple trees in the spring. Just take extra care to ensure they are very well watered for the first year or two as the roots become established in the soil.
Planning Your Orchard and Purchasing Apple Trees
If you’d like to start growing organic apples, first take a look at your property to decide the best location for the trees. Pick an area of your yard that gets ample sunlight, preferably in the morning. You’ll also want to make sure this area is accessible for future apple picking. Keep in mind that you’ll need at least two trees of two different varieties to ensure cross-pollination. Take some measurements to bring along to the nursery with you.
Once you’ve planned your planting area, head down to your local independent nursery for some trees. Talk over the available varieties with nursery staff. Pick two varieties that blossom at the same time to ensure good pollination. If local availability is limited, it’s also possible to buy apple trees online (here’s my take on what it’s like to buy trees online).
Common, conventionally-grown trees like Gala, Honeycrisp, and Fuji are available throughout the year from larger retailers while more unique varieties (Ambrosia, Pink Lady) and certified organic trees may only be available in the shoulder seasons.
If you can only fit one tree in your yard, you may be able to find a self-pollinating type. Alternatively, you might get away with a single tree if your neighbours also have trees. You may also consider planting dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties. These smaller trees make for an easier apple harvest (especially for children). Discuss your individual needs with the staff at your local independent nursery. They will know the specifics of your region, including the best varieties and other geographically-specific tips.
Growing Apple Trees from Seed
If you’re not into buying trees, it is possible to grow apple trees from seed. Growing apple trees from seed does not always produce delicious apples. In fact, the apples produced by a tree grown from seed will not be the same as the apple from which the seeds were collected.
If you do decide to grow your own trees from seed, start with seeds you’ve collected from local organic apples that you thought were delicious. According to Paul Wheaton, there is about a 20% chance your new tree will produce delicious apples and a 60% chance that the tree will produce “ok” apples. They might be good for making juice, for making apple sauce, or even for pies. They’ll be ok for something.
Unfortunately, there is a 20% chance that the tree will be a “spitter”. Spitter apple trees produce apples that are not good to eat. These apples can be used to feed livestock, or you can chop down the tree and make apple chips for smoking meats. I’m not sure how scientific these percentages are either.
Growing organic apples from seed isn’t exactly standard practice. All the apple trees you see in nurseries and orchards are likely grafted. If you are a little adventurous and very patient, try these instructions for growing your own trees from seed.
How to Plant Apple Trees
If you decide to buy grafted trees rather than growing from seed, as I did, place the new trees in their containers close to their future homes on your property. Rotate the container around to find the most suitable orientation of the branches. Once you’re confident about the future homes for the trees, dig a hole for each tree. If you’re not sure about the location, you may want to observe the environment in your yard, try out a few areas, and find the best location for your trees.
For dwarf varieties, plant the trees between 15 ft and 50 ft apart. Each hole should be quite wide (perhaps twice the size of the container in which the tree is delivered). Hole depth, however, should not be deeper than the tree’s container. Resist the urge to “improve” the hole by adding fertilizer. This will only encourage the tree to grow at exactly the time it needs to be going dormant for winter.
Place each tree in the hole so that the soil in the container is at the same level as the surrounding ground. Backfill the hole with the existing soil and lightly tamp it down. Do not compact the soil excessively.
How to Grow Organic Apples
Give the tree a thorough watering after planting. If you wish to feed the tree, a light mulch of compost can be applied on top of the soil after you’ve finished planting the tree. Ensure that no soil or mulch is touching the tree trunk. Soil and mulch should never touch the bark of any tree, as it invites moisture, bacteria, and rot. If you mulch the tree with shredded fall leaves for the winter, keep the same rule in mind. Mulch, of any kind, should never touch the bark of a tree.
Don’t try to do too much to the tree before it goes dormant for winter. Fall is not the time to start pruning a newly-planted apple tree. Some instructions may call for fertilizer at this point, but that is not recommended. Beware that if you use chemical fertilizer to your apple tree, it won’t be organic anymore! Top dress the soil with a bit of compost in the spring if you must, but otherwise just make sure it has enough water and leave it to it’s own devices.
General Maintenance for Growing Organic Apples
In the winter or early spring, you can give the tree a light pruning if necessary. Remove any cross-branches (branches that go in odd directions) or dead/damaged/diseased parts of the tree. As you are working with a young tree which has been recently transplanted, be gentle with the pruning. Don’t remove too much of the tree in it’s first year. Your goal is only to improve air flow around individual branches by reduce branch crowding. You want the sun’s rays to reach into the centre of the tree, and want air to be able to circulate around each branch.
If you are new to pruning, I recommend borrowing a copy of The Pruning Book, by Lee Reich, from your local library or friendly fruit enthusiast. Lee is a fruit-growing guru who is known for his scientifically-based yet easy-to-follow method of instruction. His book, Grow Fruit Naturally, is also an excellent resource if you find that pests are invading your trees. There are several methods of chemical-free, natural pest control suited to growing organic apples.