Wondering how to keep a peach tree small? It does take a bit of planning, but it’s completely possible! There are some options available that will help you create a compact, productive mini fruit tree.
To keep a peach tree small, start by buying a young plant that is either a genetic dwarf variety or a standard variety that has been drafted onto a dwarfing rootstock. Train the young plant to grow and fit one of several specific compact frameworks such as fan-shaped along a wall. Keep the secondary branches short by cutting them back every year as part of your annual summertime pruning.
Read on to learn more about keeping peach trees compact.
Introduction to growing small peach trees
Keeping a peach tree small enough so you can pick peaches without a ladder starts with how you plant it. Select dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties, train them into a specific shape when the plant is young, and prune them annually in the summer to stunt their growth.
One method of keeping a peach tree small is through summer pruning. This involves trimming back the length of the branches, which helps to keep the tree from becoming too large. Pruning should be done in late June or early July when you can see how much growth your peach tree has made since spring.
Here are the basics for creating and maintaining a small peach tree:
- Choose a naturally small variety or grafted dwarf plant.
- Plant a young peach tree so you can train the permanent branches to be as small as possible.
- Always cut out any branches that are dead, damaged, or diseased.
- Peaches grow on one-year-old branches (last year’s wood). After a branch has fruited, be sure to prune it out so a new one can sprout that will bear fruit next year.
- Cut the permanent branches back by 1/3 to 1/2 inch the summer after harvest.
- Use sharp, sterilized loppers or pruners, and cut the branches back to an outward-facing bud or lateral branch. Cut at a 45° angle and about a 1/2-inch above the bud or branch.
Aside from summer pruning, how can you keep your peach tree small? Planting multiple trees close together can help conserve space, as the trees will act like a hedge and grow into one another. You might also consider planting a variety of peach tree that is true dwarf, meaning it will never reach the same size as its standard counterparts. If you don’t have much room to work with, opt for growing a dwarf variety in a container like a half wine barrel or fabric pot.
Pruning techniques to produce compact peach trees
You can also prune your peach tree in a way that will produce a more compact tree. This is done by using modified central leader and pyramid, espaliered (hugging the wall or fence), or bush shaped pruning techniques. Plant young trees so they are malleable and easy to train.
Modified central leader peach trees
Modified central leader involves removing shoots from the main stem and letting lateral branches take over. This will create a form that is more manageable and it reduces the potential for the tree to grow too large.
Pyramid trained peach trees
Pyramid trained trees involve pruning the main leader and letting several lower branches become the new leaders. This will create a 3D pyramidal form that is well-balanced and neat looking.
Espaliered peach trees
The espalier technique, on the other hand, involves training the tree’s branches into vertical and horizontal tiers along a wall or fence. This method helps maintain small trees with an open center that allows for good air circulation and sunlight.
Fan-trained peach trees
Fan-trained peach tree training is a specialized 2D training form where a fan shape is created out of the flat plane of a fence or wall. This technique produces an attractive and productive mini fruit tree, while still being easy to maintain.
In this form, two main leaders are chosen to extend upwards and outwards in a V-shape. All other main branches are removed. Offshoot “secondary” branches are allowed to develop off these two sides of the V along the plane of the fence. For the neatest look, keep all these secondary branches between the two sides of the V. For more fruit, let one or two grow down from the middle of each leader to maximize vertical space. These secondary brnahces will be shortened during the winter to induce growth of temporary fruiting branches along them.
Peaches will grow on the temporary fruiting branches that grow off the secondary branches that grow off the two main V leaders at the base. Try to keep the fruiting branches 6 inches apart for good airflow. Branches bear fruit when they are one year old, so it’s important to keep the tree sprouting new branches each year so there is fruit the next year.
Bush-shaped pruning for peaches
Finally, bush-shaped pruning involves cutting the leader at a lower height and then removing lateral branches to create a more rounded tree shape with an open center. This method is best for those who want dwarf trees but still want them to be productive!
“The best choice for home mini fruit growers may be modified central leader or pyramid, which fits well in narrow spaces; espaliered or fan, which hugs a wall or fence; or bush shaped, which can be kept compact without creating shade or a space-hogging canopy. These are more compact choices for confined spaces.” -Grow a Mini Fruit Tree
Pruning cuts for training and maintaining peach trees
Here are the different types of pruning cuts used to prune peach trees and to keep them compact.
Used to remove a branch at its point of origin. Make sure you make the cut just above where two branches meet. Don’t cut into the collar at the base of the branch, as its really part of the trunk.
A reduction cut is used to make a branch shorter by cutting back to an outward-facing bud or younger, lateral branch. Cut the branch at a 1/2-inch (1 cm) angle above the bud or branch, parallel to the bud.
Dwarf peach trees
Dwarf peach trees are becoming much more available than they were in previous decades. There are both true genetic dwarf peach cultivars as well as standard cultivars that have been drafted onto a dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstock.
If you want to grow a true dwarf peach tree, look for varieties such as ‘Bonanza’, ‘Garden Gold’, and ‘Flore Miniature’. These are all very small trees that produce sweet and juicy peaches on smaller-than-normal plants.
If you prefer standard cultivars, there are also several on the market with rootstocks that prevent them from growing too large. Some of these include ‘Redhaven’, ‘Tropic Snow’, and ‘Reliance’. Be sure to choose a tree that is specifically marked as being grafted onto a semi-dwarf rootstock, as many are on full-size rootstocks.
Growing dwarf fruit trees in a container
If you want to grow a dwarf variety, consider using a container like a half wine barrel or fabric pot. A breathable container like a fabric grow bag will help air-prune the roots and help keep the plant small.
Make sure to use a good quality potting mix combined with some natural mineral soil and water it regularly. Dwarf trees don’t need as much fertilizer as larger trees, so make sure not to over-fertilize. That said, these trees are completely reliant on the gardener for nutrient input, so don’t skip fertilizing either.
When planting the tree in the container, make sure you keep it at the same level as when it was growing in the nursery. You should be able to see the root flare above the soil as it widens at the soil line. Prune back any branches that are getting too long or close to the soil line, as this can cause disease and pests.
Use these techniques to keep your dwarf peach trees healthy and compact, so you can enjoy their sweet fruits without needing a ladder! With some careful management and pruning, you’ll be able to enjoy the fruits of your labor year after year.
Planting multiple small peach trees
If you want to maximize the amount of space you have for growing mini fruit trees, consider planting multiple small peach trees in a row. Planting two or three trees close together will help conserve space while still allowing each tree enough room to grow and produce.
Be sure to prune them regularly throughout the growing season so they don’t get too large and overshadow the other trees in the row. Also make sure to keep an eye out for pests and diseases, as these can quickly spread between trees if not taken care of.
With proper pruning and maintenance, you’ll be able to enjoy a bounty of sweet peaches from your mini orchard within about 5 years of planting.
Before you go…
Growing a small peach tree doesn’t have to be difficult or complicated. Here are some of the best varieties to try. Try choosing varieties well adapted to local climate.